Typical 1-Month-Old Baby
|Begins gaining control over rooting reflex (rooting leads to sucking)|
|Locates nipple with mouth easily|
|Sequences 2 or more sucks from the bottle or breast|
|Mouths hands & fingers near front of mouth (generalized mouthing)|
|Mouth, nose, & throat growing & changing (different from newborn)|
|Has closed mouth & easy nose-breathing when mouth is inactive & empty|
|Rests tongue in roof of the mouth to help maintain broad palate shape|
|Is free of tethered tongue, lip, and/or cheek ties|
|Can mirror/imitate some mouth movement|
|Can match some pitch & duration of human voice|
When Held Upright
|Lifts & holds head up in line with body for a few seconds (birth to 1 month)|
|Holds head up steadily in line with body for a few minutes (1 to 2 months)|
When on the Stomach
|Rests head to one side or the other & can bring hand to mouth on that side|
|Moves arms & legs away from body & lowers hips toward a surface when resting|
|Lifts & turns head with increasing skill (shifts weight to arms; shoulders likely sending information through spine for hips to lift from surface)|
|Can lift head for a few moments without chin touching a surface (birth to 1 month)|
|Can lift head for approximately 5 seconds (1 to 2 months)|
|Moves legs in thrusting or crawling motion (birth to 1 month)|
When on Each Side
|Turns from side to back from each side (1 to 2 months)|
When on the Back
|Has increased skill in head turning & chin lifting; may turn head from side-to-side|
|May assume fencing posture with head turning (arm reaching outward on face side, elbow bent on skull side – asymmetric tonic neck reflex/response)|
|May turn head to look at something & move hands in a rudimentary way (possible eye-hand connection)|
|Has better peripheral than midline vision, so can track object from side to middle of body|
|Has increased chest, shoulder, arm, & hand opening likely secondary to gravitational pull|
|Closes hand around adult’s finger or object (grasp response)|
|Moves arms vigorously (1 to 2 months)|
|Kick legs in the air reciprocally, as well as symmetrically|
|Bends body, arms, & legs at the same time (tonic labyrinthine reflex, birth to 1 month)|
|Straightens body; tries to straighten arms & legs (tonic labyrinthine reflex, birth to 1 month)|
•Bahr, D. (2018). Feed your baby and toddler right: Early eating and drinking skills encourage the best development. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons.
•Bahr, D. C., & Hillis, A. E. (2001). Neurological and anatomical bases. In D. C. Bahr Oral motor assessment and treatment: Ages and stages (pp. 1-41). USA: Pearson College Division.
•Bly, L. (1994). Motor skills acquisition in the first year: An illustrated guide to normal development. USA: Psychological Corp.
•Feldenkrais, M. (1972). Awareness through movement (Vol. 1977). New York: Harper and Row.
•Morris, S. E., & Klein, M. D. (2000). Pre-Feeding skills: A comprehensive resource for mealtime development. (2nd ed.) . San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders.
•Neuro Restart (2019). Primitive reflexes. Retrieved from http://www.neurorestart.co.uk/primitive-reflexes/
•Vulpe, S. G. (1994). Vulpe assessment battery-revised: Developmental assessment, performance analysis, individualized programming for the atypical child. East Aurora, NY: Slosson Educational Publications.